Get feel and appearance of the standard with die casting

Die casting has gained significance in the industries where precision is a matter of worry. While ensuring customers with a full finish in products, this die casting process has become a prime option for the users. Its advent in manufacturing and big industrial units has increased their productivity and performance by all means. This technique is used to mold and produce the product with the best finish. Usually made from non-ferrous metals, like copper, zinc, magnesium, aluminum, pewter, lead, and tin-based alloys, it is characterized by forcing molten metal under top force into a mold cavity. They are relatively easy to process and curtail high expenditure. Suited for a big quantity of little medium casting, they maintain dimension consistency.

Die casting gives parts that are durable and dimensionally stable in nature. While providing hard shapes of industrial parts within closer tolerances, it decreases or eliminates secondary machining operations. Die-cast parts have bigger resistance to temperature extremes. Marked as one of the quickest and most affordable techniques for producing a big range of components, it has become the most commended force of the metal industry. Being important to many manufacturing industries like hardware, white goods, automotive, electronics and electrical and many others it provides components in zinc, aluminum, and zinc alloys efficiently, rightly with best mechanical features and consumer appeal.

Die casting has located a powerful emphasis on the application of scientific knowledge to its producers. The integrated process is important for producing engineered products that make sure long term advantage. It manufactures parts with thinner walls, marked with closer dimensional limits and perfect surfaces. With the advancement of the auto industry and the rise in trade, demand for casted parts has taken a big hike. This process can be carried out either by using the hot or cold chamber. Zinc casting is considered to be the most perfect way by gathering the precision with physical and excellent properties of zinc. With aluminium die casting it becomes simple to avail meticulous parts in high volume at low costs.

With consistent standard over high volume, it makes sure the long life of the die mold. Tested and certified by experts, casting parts to mark their brilliance in all endeavors. If you are seeking these parts, you can forever take the help of internet stores or can avail of their services through other sources. But before you go for them, ensure that you are availed with best knowledge and top advises, so that you can meet your specific needs.

Die Casting Design

Die-casting can be done using a cold chamber or hot chamber process.

1. In a cold chamber process, the molten metal is ladled into the cold chamber for each shot. There is less time exposure of the melt to the plunger walls or the plunger. This is particularly useful for metals such as Aluminum, and Copper (and its alloys) that alloy easily with Iron at the higher temperatures.

2. In a hot chamber process, the pressure chamber is connected to the die cavity is immersed permanently in the molten metal. The inlet port of the pressurizing cylinder is uncovered as the plunger moves to the open (unpressurized) position. This allows a new charge of molten metal to fill the cavity and thus can fill the cavity faster than the cold chamber process. The hot chamber process is used for metals of low melting point and high fluidity such as tin, zinc, and lead that tend not to alloy easily with steel at their melt temperatures. die casting, aluminum die casting, aluminum casting, ADC-12 die casting, automotive die casting part, motorcycles spare part, aluminum pressure die casting

Automotive die casting
Automotive die casting

3. Die casting molds (called dies in the industry) tend to be expensive as they are made from hardened steel-also the cycle time for building these tend to belong. Also, the stronger and harder metals such as iron and steel cannot be die-cast

Aluminum die casting process introduction

Though the term die casting can refer to any kind of casting using a die such as gravity die casting or low pressure die casting, yet here die casting only refer to high pressure die casting. Aluminum die casting is a process of casting Aluminum alloy under pressure, can produce precision parts in high volume at low costs. There are two processes of aluminum die-casting namely hot chamber die casting and cold chamber die casting. Parison die casting introduced cold chamber die casting process from1980’s. Now the die casting machines which Parison die casting is applying are cold chamber die casting machines.

Illustration of cold chamber die casting process

In a cold chamber die casting process, the molten aluminum alloy is ladled into the cold chamber for each shot. There is less time exposure of the melted alloy to the plunger walls or the plunger. This is particularly useful for aluminum alloy that alloys easily with Iron at the higher temperatures.

After the molten aluminum alloy is ladled into the cold chamber, the piston will inject it into the cavity of the die casting mold through three different pressure phrases. The pressured molten aluminum alloy gets in sequence through spure system, running system, and gate system into the cavity of the die casting mold.

The filled cavity with affection of cooling system shapes the desired aluminum die casting products. Then the moving die moves away from the fix die, while the ejectors push out the casting.

Advantage of aluminum die casting process

A.high volume but low cost Compared with aluminum sand casting and gravity casting, aluminum die casting can produce precision parts in high volume at low costs.

Aluminium die casting
Aluminium die casting

B.good surface finish and good dimensional accuracy Aluminum die casting generally has good surface finish and good dimensional accuracy. For many parts, post-machining can be totally eliminated, or very light machining may be required to bring dimensions to size.

The disadvantage of aluminum die casting process

A.high cost of die casting mold The cost of tooling of die casting is much more expensive than those of sand casting, gravity casting, and investment casting.

B.high porosity Though the porosity of die casting can be adjusted by using much higher pressure with a much larger and heavier mold, the porosity can not be avoided and is much more than that is of low-pressure casting and gravity casting. Furthermore, porosity leads die casting parts to be not suitable for heat treatment. Thus the consistency can not be compared with gravity castings.

FAQ’s of aluminum die casting process

what is aluminum die casting process?

what is the cold chamber die casting process?

what is the difference between cold chamber and hot chamber die casting process?

What is the application of die casting process?

what kinds of metal can be applied in die casting process?

why is the cold chamber die casting process preferable for aluminum casting rather than hot chamber die casting process?

what is the application of die casting products?

what kinds of post-treatments can be available for aluminum die casting products?

what is the difference between aluminum high-pressure die casting and low pressure die casting?

what is gravity die casting? Is it the same as high pressure die casting process?

Alloy Die Casting

Alloy Die Casting Description:

Aluminum Alloy Die Casting A380 is the most common of the aluminum die casting alloys. It offers the best combination of casting and product properties. It is used for a wide variety of products such as garden equipment, chassis for electronic equipment, engine brackets, housings for automotive alternators, starters and water pumps, home appliances, furniture, office equipment hand tools, and power tools. Alloys 383 and 384 are alternatives to 380 that are specified when very intricate components require improved die filling characteristics and improved resistance to hot cracking. Alloy 360 offers high corrosion resistance and superior strength at elevated temperatures than 380. Other properties are essentially equivalent. Alloy 413 offers the best die fill characteristics making it excellent for pressure tightness applications. it is the choice for products such as hydraulic cylinders and pressure vessels. Its casting characteristics make it useful for very intricate components.

aluminum die casting
aluminum die casting

Alloy 390 was developed for automotive engine blocks. Resistance to wear is excellent, but ductility is the lowest of the die casting alloys, with elongation less than 1%. Special surface treatment systems allow engine pistons to run directly on the alloy surface, eliminating the need for ferrous alloy liners. It can also be used for valve bodies and bearing surfaces subject to abrasion and wear.

Alloy 518 is used in escalator components, conveyor components, and marine and aircraft applications It offers good ductility and very good corrosion resistance. It can be polished and anodized for a decorative finish. Zinc Alloy Die Casting Zinc alloys are versatile, cost-effective materials which can be used in a diverse range of die casting applications. As precisely formulated metal alloys, they offer the mechanical properties of medium strength metals. Advantages of Zinc Alloy Die Casting Overall, zinc alloys have significant advantages as casting materials for small components, with excellent physical and mechanical properties, castability and finishing characteristics. Hot chamber die-cast zinc alloys can be cast to tight tolerances, complex detail, net shape, and the alloy¡¯s dimensional stability ensure part-to-part consistency over long production runs. Net shape manufacturing is one of the main advantages of hot chamber die-cast zinc alloys.

The most commonly used zinc alloys are ZAMAK™ 2, ZAMAK™ 3, ZAMAK™ 5, Acuzinc. These alloy families offer higher tensile strengths than most aluminum and magnesium alloys, higher yield strengths, greater impact resistance, higher Brinell hardness, and better ductility. ¡¡è Zinc alloys facilitate higher die casting cycle speeds versus aluminum and other metal alloys, more complex shapes, thinner sections, smoother surface finishes, surface finishes, and higher standards of dimensional accuracy. Compared to plastic, zinc alloys are several times stronger and many times more rigid. Their mechanical properties compare favorably with powdered iron, brass, and screw-machined steel. Zinc has inherent EMI/RFI shielding properties.

CNMCast uses only high-grade zinc alloys certified for purity. Although these materials are completely recyclable, scrap is never re-melted or re-used within our process. Zamak 3 die casting is the standard for the Zamak series of zinc alloys; all other zinc alloys are compared to this. Zamak 3 has the base composition for the Zamak alloys (96% zinc, 4% aluminum). It has excellent castability and long term dimensional stability. More than 70% of all North American zinc die castings are made from Zamak 3. ZAMAK #5 offers high tensile strength, hardness, and creep resistance than zamak# 3, and somewhat lower ductility.

It is preferred whenever these properties are required. Some die casters use only zamak# 5, which is usually an acceptable alternative to zamak# 3. ZAMAK #7 is essentially a high purity form of zamak# 3 with slightly higher ductility and lower hardness. The other mechanical properties are identical to zamak# 3.

The alloy also exhibits higher fluidity than zamak# 3 or3 5, which theoretically allows slightly thinner walls. Zamak# 7 may be specified when high ductility is required. ZA-8 is rapidly growing in popularity for pressure die casting.

ZA-8 can be cast in hot chamber die casting machines for fast cycle rates, It has improved strength, hardness and creeps properties over the ZAMAK alloys with the exception of a No. 2 alloy which is very similar in performance. ZA-8 is readily plated and finished using standard procedures for ZAMAK. When the performance of Zamak No. 3 or No. 5 is in question, ZA-8 is often the die casting choice because of high strength and creep properties and efficient hot chamber castability.

Zamak 5 die casting
Zamak 5 die casting

ZA-12 is also a good pressure die casting alloy, using the cold chamber process, which provides a sounder structure than ZA-27, as well as higher die-cast elongation and impact properties. For these reasons, die-cast ZA-12 often competes with ZA-27 for strength application. An excellent bearing alloy, ZA-12 is also platable, although plating adhesion is reduced compared to the ZAMAK alloys. ZA-27 is the high strength performer of the zinc alloys and is die-cast using the cold chamber process.

It is also the lightest alloy and offers excellent bearing and wear resistance properties. ZA-27, however, requires care during melting and casting to assure sound internal structure, particularly for heavy wall sections. It may also need stabilization heat treatment when tight dimensional tolerances are required. ZA-27 is not recommended for plating. However, when brute strength or wear-resistant properties are needed, ZA-27 has demonstrated extraordinary performance.

Metal Casting

AQL Acceptable Quality Level. A quality level established on a prearranged system of inspection using samples selected at random.

As-cast condition Casting without subsequent heat treatment.

Backing sand The bulk of the sand in the flask. The sand compacted on top of the facing sand that covers the pattern.

Binder The bonding agent used as an additive to mold or core sand to impart strength or plasticity in a “green” or dry state. Read more

Mechanical Properties of Malleable Iron

The different grades of malleable iron are essentially the result of different heat treatments. Just as a medium carbon steel can be heat treated to a wide range in properties so can malleable iron, but malleable is even more versatile. The combined carbon content, on which heat treatment depends, can be adjusted from none, as when the microstructure is entirely ferritic, to that of a fully pearlitic structure. Read more

Mechanical Properties of Cast Carbon and Low Alloy Steels

For the purpose of this article, carbon steels are considered to be those steels in which carbon is the principal alloying element. Other elements that are present and that, in general, are required to be reported are manganese, silicon, phosphorous and sulfur. In a sense, all of these elements are residuals from the raw materials used in the manufacture of the steel, although the addition of manganese is often made during the steel making process to counter the deleterious effect of sulfur and silicon is added to aid in deoxidation. Read more

Cast Copper Alloys

A Primer on Selecting Cast Copper Alloys

Traditionally, cast copper alloys were classified by a variety of systems including the ASTM letter-number designation based on nominal composition, by trade names, and by descriptive terms such as “ounce metal,” “Navy M” and so forth. However, with technological developments, new alloys were produced and existing alloys modified, making the old designation systems inadequate and misleading.

A new system was developed based on a precise description of the composition range for each alloy, which is now the accepted alloy designation system used in North America for cast copper and copper alloy products. Originally developed as a three digit system by the copper and brass industry, the designations have now been expanded to five digits that follow a prefix letter “C,” and have been made part of the Unified Numbering System (UNS) for Metals and Alloys. The UNS is managed jointly by the American Society for Testing and Materials, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. Read more

Aluminium Casting

A Basic Guide to Choosing Aluminum Casting Alloys Part 2

Alloys 319.0, A319.0, B319.0 & 320.0
Alloys 319.0 and A319.0 exhibit very good castability, weldability, pressure tightness and moderate strength. They are very stable alloys (i.e., their good casting and mechanical properties are not affected seriously by fluctuations in the impurity content). Alloys B319.0 and 320.0 show higher strength and hardness than 319.0 and A319.0 and are generally used with the permanent mold casting process. Characteristics other than strength and hardness are similar to those of 319.0 and A319.0. Read more

Mechanical Properties of Compacted Graphite Iron

    Compacted graphite iron is a fairly recent addition to the family of commercially produced aluminum casting irons. Its characteristics are intermediate to those of the gray and ductile irons. As in gray iron, the graphite in CG iron is in the form of interconnected flakes. This facilitates the production of sound castings, especially those of complex shape or with intricately cored passages. However, the relatively short span and blunted edges of CG graphite provides improved strength, some ductility, and a better machined finish than gray iron. Read more

Mechanical Properties of Cast Iron

Ductile iron is characterized by having all of its graphite occur in microscopic spheroids. Although this graphite constitutes about 10% by volume of ductile iron, its compact spherical shape minimizes the effect on mechanical properties. The graphite in commercially produced ductile iron is not always in perfect spheres. It can occur in a somewhat irregular form, but if it is still chunky as Type II in ASTM Standard A247, the properties of the iron will be similar to cast iron with spheroidal graphite. Of course, further degradation can influence mechanical properties. The shape of the graphite is established when the metal solidifies, and it cannot be changed in any way except by remelting the metal.  Read more